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" رضا رشید پور "

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه بیست و سوم اسفند 1388ساعت 5:8  توسط (( محا ))  | 

 

 

عید نز دیکه

 

تو خوردن آجیل زیاده روی نکنید

 

اینجوری هم واسه خودتون خوبه و هم برای میزبان

 

 

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه بیست و سوم اسفند 1388ساعت 5:7  توسط (( محا ))  | 

 

 

 

 

How Beet Sugar is Made - the Basic Story

 

White beet sugar is made from the beets in a single process, rather than the two steps involved with cane sugar.

Harvesting


The beets are harvested in the autumn and early winter by digging them out of the ground. They are usually transported to the factory by large trucks because the transport distances involved are greater than in the cane industry. This is a direct result of sugar beet being a rotational crop which requires nearly 4 times the land area of the equivalent cane crop which is grown in mono-culture. Because the beets have come from the ground they are much dirtier than sugar cane and have to be thoroughly washed and separated from any remaining beet leaves, stones and other trash material before processing.

 

Extraction


The processing starts by slicing the beets into thin chips. This process increases the surface area of the beet to make it easier to extract the sugar. The extraction takes place in a diffuser where the beet is kept in contact with hot water for about an hour. Diffusion is the process by which the colour and flavour of tea comes out of the tea leaves in a teapot but a typical diffuser weighs several hundred tons when full of beet and extraction water. The diffuser is a large horizontal or vertical agitated tank in which the beets slices slowly work their way from one end to the other and the water is moved in the opposite direction. This is called counter-current flow and as the water goes it becomes a stronger and stronger sugar solution usually called juice. Of course it also collects a lot of other chemicals from the flesh of the sugar beet.

 

Pressing


The exhausted beet slices from the diffuser are still very wet and the water in them still holds some useful sugar. They are therefore pressed in screw presses to squeeze as much juice as possible out of them. This juice is used as part of the water in the diffuser and the pressed beet, by now a pulp, is sent to drying plant where it is turned into pellets which form an important constituent of some animal feeds.

 

Carbonatation


The juice must now be cleaned up before it can be used for sugar production. This is done by a process known as carbonatation where small clumps of chalk are grown in the juice. The clumps, as they form, collect a lot of the non-sugars so that by filtering out the chalk one also takes out the non-sugars. Once this is done the sugar liquor is ready for sugar production except that it is very dilute.

The next stage of the process is therefore to evaporate the juice in a multi-stage evaporator. This technique is used because it is an efficient way of using steam and it also creates another, lower grade steam which can be used to drive the crystallisation process.

 

Boiling


For this last stage, the syrup is placed into a very large pan, typically holding 60 tons or more of sugar syrup. In the pan even more water is boiled off until conditions are right for sugar crystals to grow. You may have done something like this at school but probably not with sugar because it is difficult to get the crystals to grow well. In the factory the workers usually have to add some sugar dust to initiate crystal formation. Once the crystals have grown the resulting mixture of crystals and mother liquor is spun in centrifuges to separate the two, rather like washing is spin dried. The crystals are then given a final dry with hot air before being packed and/or stored ready for despatch.

 

Product


The final sugar is white and ready for use, whether in the kitchen or by an industrial user such as a soft drink manufacturer. As for raw sugar production, because one cannot get all the sugar out of the juice, there is a sweet by-product made: beet molasses. This is usually turned into a cattle food or is sent to a fermentation plant such as a distillery where alcohol is made. It does not have the same quality smell and taste as cane molasses so cannot be used for rum production.

 

Power


One of the big differences between a beet sugar factory and its cane sugar counterpart is with respect to energy. Both factories need steam and electricity to run and both have co-generation stations where high pressure steam is used to drive turbines which produce the electrical power and create the low pressure steam needed by the process. However the beet factory does not have a suitable by-product to use as fuel for the boilers, it has to burn a fossil fuel such as coal, oil or gas. This is partly because the pulp will not burn properly and partly because the animal feed business has been built from the availability of the pulp.

 

 

http://www.sucrose.com/lbeet.html

 

 

 

 


Sugar Brown

 

 

Operating in the not-so-small shadow of Raoul's next door, Sugar Brown is never really going to be able to compete, but having said this, it is a better than average cocktail bar, albeit one with a very limited menu.

Among the drinks we sampled was a very good mint mojito (haven't they all got mint in?) and a less exciting peach-based martini drink. Seating was limited but comfy on brown (what else?) leather sofas. Didn't venture upstairs as previous review suggests we should.

Good cocktail bar if situated anywhere else other than next to Raoul's.

Joe B, 20/07/07


More spacious than DoC or Raoul's... though this is because it draws a smaller crowd. Comfy sofas downstairs make up for the too-loud music and oddly low tables. Pretty good selection of cocktails, although they were a little watered down for my taste. Drinks are not as inventive or flashy as those of nearby competitors, although Sugar Brown DOES offer an escape from the crowds. Service was very attentive (too attentive?) on an early weekend evening. Drinks around 5-5.50 each, although a convenient half-price happy hour runs to 7pm. Small terrace outside with 2 tables: perfect for summer-time drinking and Jericho-watching.

anon, 17/03/07


Sugar Brown is another fairly decent cocktail bar to add to the Walton / Little Clarendon Street selection. The staff are friendly and take care when they prepare a selection of interesting concoctions. These come in around the fiver mark, but you don't feel cheated. The seating is comfortable and the decor aspires to hipness, as do the majority of the customers.

We didn't try any of the food, but it looked acceptable enough. We left a little puzzled. What is Sugar Brown aiming to add to the area, except a few more seats? With Raoul's, Duke of C, Angel's, Frevd's and more within range of a well thrown ice-cube, surely it must distinguish itself in some way? But we couldn't spot it.

On the other hand, the few more seats are actually needed most evenings, and it makes the cocktail bar crawl even more challenging than it was already. But couldn't they come up with one new idea?

Autolycus, 25/07/06

 

 

 

www.dailyinfo.co.uk/reviews/venue/508/Sugar+Brown/ - 14k

 

 

 

Sugar Fact :

Answers to Questions about Sugar

 

What is Sugar?

 


Sugar (sucrose) is a carbohydrate that occurs naturally in every fruit and vegetable. It is the major product of photosynthesis, the process by which plants transform the sun's energy into food. Sugar occurs in greatest quantities in sugar cane and sugarbeets from which it is separated for commercial use.

Does refined sugar contain preservatives or other additives?

 No. Refined sugar is 99.9 percent pure. It contains purified sugar -- pure sucrose. It contains no preservatives or additives of any kind.

What nutritional impact does refined white sugar have on my diet?


Refined white sugar is pure sucrose, a carbohydrate. Carbohydrates provide energy, contain no fat, and like protein contribute 4 calories per gram in your diet (as opposed to the 9 calories per gram contributed by fat).

Your body treats sucrose in the same way regardless of its source. In fact, your body uses all sugars in the same way, so eating refined sugar, or honey, or sugars from any other source has the same effect on your body -- it is converted into glucose and used by the cells for energy.

How does brown sugar differ from white sugar?


Brown sugar is sugar crystals in specially prepared molasses syrup with controlled natural flavor and color components. A number of sugar refiners make brown sugar by preparing and boiling special syrup containing these components until brown sugar crystals form. Others produce brown sugar by blending special flavored syrup with white sugar crystals.

 

How can brown sugar be stored to prevent hardening?


Store brown sugar in a way that allows the product to retain its natural moisture--in its original plastic bag (closed tightly) or in a moisture-proof container.

If the sugar hardens, let it stand overnight in a sealed jar with a damp paper towel or apple slice. For a quick fix, heat the needed amount in a 250 degree oven for a few minutes, or microwave on low for 1-2 minutes per cup. Use immediately.

How much sugar do Americans really eat?


Not as much as reported. Using information from a 2001 report as illustration, a general statement like "Americans consume more than 150 pounds of sugar in a year" is not only thoroughly misleading, it is completely wrong. Such false assertions perpetuate the myth that "Americans eat too much sugar." The fact is the average American consumes no more than 1.6 ounces of sugar per day or less than 40 lbs. annually.

The source of this 1999 report information is the Economic Research Service [ERS] of the United States Department of Agriculture. ERS statistics are purely economic numbers. By convention, economists use the term consumption to describe the total supply of any product available for all commercial uses during a specific period of time. Economic consumption simply indicates the total weight of a product that is used throughout a year. No matter the goods, economic consumption is calculated by subtracting year-end inventory from the sum of the amount of merchandise produced during the year + the stock-on-hand at the beginning of the same year.

Ignoring the descriptive term "economic" and misrepresenting supply numbers as human consumption is not only deceptive, it is dishonest. A news release2 like "According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) data, sugar consumption in 1999 was 158 pounds per person - 30% higher than in 1983." misleads the American consumer. Reporting economic supply numbers as nutrition fact is as fictitious as equating gross salary [total available supply] and take-home pay [human consumption]. Besides misrepresenting economic supply numbers as human intake, there is a second factual error in this news release. This error is using the word sugar to represent all sweeteners.

 

Sugar is only one component of the total sweetener supply.

 

When tabulated by ERS, total caloric sweeteners include all the corn syrups + honey products + miscellaneous edible syrups, like sorghum, as well as sugar. Total caloric sweeteners is cumbersome to say or write repeatedly, thus the term sugars was adopted for convenience [note the s on sugars]. Although the term sugars was coined to represent all caloric sweeteners, some continue to write and talk about sugar [pure sucrose from sugar cane and sugar beets] instead of sugars. This is more than semantics. Continued misrepresentation of total caloric sweeteners [sugars] as sugar [no s] is not only flawed but damages America's hardworking farmers and the stability they bring to their local economies.

 

Sugar Process :

American Crystal Sugar Company is a Minnesota agricultural cooperative corporation owned by about 3,000 sugarbeet growers in the Minnesota and North Dakota portions of the Red River Valley. American Crystal is engaged primarily in the agricultural production, manufacturing and marketing of sugar from sugarbeets. The Company also sells agri-products and sugarbeet seeds.

American Crystal processes sugarbeets grown by its members in five factories. The growing area is divided into five factory districts, each containing one sugarbeet processing plant. The period during which the Company’s plants are in operation to process sugarbeets into sugar and agri-products is referred to as the “campaign.” During the campaign, each of the Company’s factories is operated twenty-four hours per day, seven days per week. The campaign typically begins in September and continues until the available supply of sugarbeets has been depleted, which generally occurs in May of the following year. An average campaign lasts approximately 250 days, assuming normal crop yields.

Harvest and Storage

American Crystal members typically begin harvesting sugarbeets on a limited basis called “prepile harvest” at the beginning of September. The prepile harvest allows the factories to begin processing while allowing the majority of the sugarbeet crop to continue maturing. Historically, American Crystal begins its’ full “stockpile harvest” around October 1. Once stockpile harvest begins, operations run 24 hours per day until the full harvestable sugarbeet acreage is lifted from field. Throughout harvest members transport their sugarbeets by truck to receiving stations designated by the Company. The sugarbeets are then stored in one of the five factory yards or one of the 33 outlying piling stations until processed. Rapid processing is important to maximize sugar extraction and minimize spoilage. Most of the sugarbeets are stored outside in piles. Frozen sugarbeets may be stored for extended periods. In most years, the cold weather in North Dakota and Minnesota offers an advantage to American Crystal as it permits the outdoor storage of sugarbeets in below-freezing weather conditions.

In order to store beets more effectively American Crystal utilizes a process called “split pile storage” in which sugarbeets from the center of the piles are removed for processing first. Split pile storage permits more of the stored sugarbeets to freeze naturally. American Crystal also was the pioneer of a ventilation technique to further reduce spoilage. In this process, fans circulate air through ventilation channels constructed within sugarbeet piles in order to pre-cool and then deep freeze the sugarbeets. Large enclosed cold storage sheds are also used to extend the sugarbeet storage period at each of the Company’s factory locations. Enclosed cold storage sheds also utilize fan ventilation to deep freeze stored sugarbeets.

Making Sugar

American Crystal’s beet sugar processing takes place in specially designed processing facilities. At each factory, sugarbeets are washed and sliced into thin strips called cossettes. The cossettes go through a large tank called a diffuser where raw sugar juice is extracted. The cossettes are gently lifted from the bottom to the top of the diffuser as hot water washes over them absorbing the sugar. After the sugar-laden raw juice is drawn off, the beet pulp is left behind. This pulp is processed separately and formed into pellets for livestock feed and other products (See the Agri-Products section of the Web site).

The raw juice is mingled with milk of lime and carbon dioxide gas in carbonation tanks. The carbon dioxide bubbles through the mixture forming calcium carbonate. The non-sugar particles attach themselves to the calcium carbonate and settle to the bottom of the tanks.

The juice is then filtered, leaving a golden light brown clarified thin juice. This juice is boiled under vacuum where much of the water is evaporated, forming a thicker juice similar to pancake syrup. After a second filtration to ensure that all non-sugar materials are removed, the juice goes to the boiling pans. Once again the juice is boiled under vacuum and crystals begin to form. The resulting sugar crystal and syrup mix is called massecuite.

The massecuite is then sent to centrifuges for separation. By spinning rapidly in a perforated cylindrical basket, the molasses syrup is thrown off through the screen holes. The molasses syrup that remains after the sugar crystals are initially separated is further processed to remove more sugar crystals. American Crystal has two of these molasses desugarization facilities where this valuable residual sugar is claimed.

Clean hot water is used to wash the sugar, producing pure white sugar crystals. The damp crystals are dried with filtered air in a rotating drum granulator and the dried sugar passes over screens which separate the various sizes of sugar crystals. The sugar goes through a curing process and is then packaged into various retail and commercial packages, or into rail cars, and shipped to stores and food manufacturers.

 

www.crystalsugar.com/products/products6.sprocess.asp - 12k

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه بیست و سوم اسفند 1388ساعت 4:59  توسط (( محا ))  |